Water as a pentagonal damping structure for life

The following excerpt from this research explains how water forms pentagonal molecular structures that can fit together into a larger icosahedral geometry. When combined with carbon-12, water acts to literally damp resonance into the 12:5 crystalline structure of DNA.

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Figure 4
(below). This illustrates the number of structural forms that exist within the 280-molecule water cluster (ES); the number of type a, b and c molecules, as described in Figure 1, are given bracketed below as (na,nb,nc). Interestingly clusters d, f, g and h are the (only) four clusters singled out by Stillinger from early molecular dynamics calculations [729]. These clusters are key to the formation of the 280-molecule water cluster (ES). It is worthy of note that cyclic pentamers (c) and boat-form hexamers (b) appear to be the most stable water pentamer and hexamer structures in the gas phase [466], with cyclic pentamers most likely to remain intact at higher temperatures [731].

bits

There are:
 
80 complete all-gauche chair-form hexamers (a) (0,3,3),
 
360 all-gauche boat-form hexamers (b) (67% 2,2,2 and 33% 0,2,4) of which 90 are made up of partial bits,
 
72 all-cis pentamers (c) (5,0,0) of which 36 are made up of partial bits,
 
20 all-gauche ten-molecule tetrahedra (d) (0,4,6),
 
40 all-gauche hexameric boxes (e) (0,6,6) of which 10 are made up of partial bits,
 
120 all-gauche
eight-molecule structures (f) (2,2,4) of which 30 are made up of partial bits,
 
48 cis- and gauche-bonded pentameric boxes (g) (5,5,5) of which 24 are made up of partial bits, and 
 
4 all-cis dodecahedra (h) (20,0,0) of which 3 are made up of partial bits (that is,12 quarter-dodecahedra).
 Cis-hydrogen bonding allows a favorable overlap of the molecular orbitals [
165]. [Back to Top rtup]

Connectivity map of the water icosahedron
pentagon
 
 
Figure 5. The two-dimensional connectivity map of the 280-molecule icosahedral clusters is shown opposite, with the inner (green) middle (red) and outer (black) layers indicated by their color. Each intersection represents one water molecule, connected to others by hydrogen bonds.

 
The inner, middle and outer shells are also shown separately below.
pentgon2
   
Icosahedral super cluster
clust13
Figure 6. A super cluster of thirteen water icosahedra, showing the tessellation ability. Thirteen complete but overlapping icosahedral clusters form this super-icosahedral structure (an icosahedron of interpenetrating icosahedra; that is, a tricontahedron) containing 1820 water molecules (an outer shell of an additional 360 water molecules is also shown). This structure is for illustrative purposes only of the type of superclustering possible. It is not likely to be a preferred minimum-energy structure due to the increased strain on full tessellation [295]; However the icosahedral structures can form part of fully tessellated clathrate I-type structures.
 
The volume of the central (H
2O)280 icosahedron is about 1/4 of the volume of a single gaseous H2O molecule. Although there is presently no evidence for this and the mechanism of formation is unclear, the stabilization offered by the surrounding optimal hydrogen bonding may indicate a possible route to bulk nanobubble (that is, nanocavity) formation. Only the oxygen atoms are shown (for interactive structures see: Chime, 50KB).